Generally Migration means the movement of a person or a group of persons includes refugees, displaced persons, economic migrants and persons moving for other purposes like search of work or economic opportunities, or to join family, or to study whatever its length, composition and causes either across an international border or within a state is known as migration.
According to Bangladesh Overseas Employment and Migration Act, 2013 Migration means the departure of a citizen from Bangladesh for the purpose of employment in a trade or profession in any foreign country.
The International Organization for Migration defines a migrant as any person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a state away from her/his habitual place of residence, regardless of
- the person’s legal status;
- whether the movement is voluntary or involuntary;
- what the causes for the movement are; or
- what the length of the stay is.
According to Bangladesh Overseas Employment and Migration Act, 2013 “Migrant means any citizen of Bangladesh who has migrated to a foreign country for the purpose of overseas employment in any work or profession.
In a boarder sense, migrant can be classified in two ways in the context of Bangladesh:
- Potential Migrant
Potential migrants are those who registered themselves through online registration system under BMET to start the process of migration before departure.
- Returnee Migrant
Returnee migrant are those who left the country for the purpose of migration and return after completion of the period of job contract or before that.
Migrant worker or worker
Migrant worker or worker means any citizen of Bangladesh who, for wages
• is in the planning process to migrate for work or is departing to any foreign country for work;
• is employed in a trade or profession in any foreign country; or
• has returned to Bangladesh at the end of the tenure of employment or without having completed the tenure of employment in a trade or profession from a foreign country;
If a person moves from one country to another with an intention to earn money with valid passport, valid Visa and job contract from the employer and with manpower clearance from BMET then that is called regular migration.
Irregular migration happens when a person moves from one country to another with an intention to earn money without following things
According to the Bangladesh prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, 2012 “Human trafficking means the selling or buying ,recruiting or receiving, deporting or transferring, sending or confining or harboring either inside or outside of the territory of Bangladesh of any person for the purpose of sexual exploitation or oppression labour exploitation or any other form of exploitation or oppression by means of:
- Threat or use of force
- Deception or abuse of his/her socio economic or environmental or other types of vulnerability
- Giving or receiving money or benefit to procure the consent of a person having control over him
Smuggling of migrants
If any person induces or assists any other person through deception and for bad intention to move, migrate or emigrate for work or service either inside or outside the territory of Bangladesh though he knows that such other person would be put into exploitative labour similar to practices of servitude or forced labour or into any other form of exploitation